Ultrasonic Testing (UT)-Flaw Detection / Delamination Detection:

It can be used to detect welding discontinuities (Pipes, Pipeline, and Structural etc.), It can be used to detect delamination in the metallic as well as composite material

Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement (UTM)

Measuring thickness of metallic material in pipes , pipeline, structural, vessel and component etc.

Ultrsonic Testing (UT)-De-bond Detection in Composite Material / GRE material

Glass Reinforced Epoxy material inspection

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT)

Weld inspection, Parent Material Test for Metallic Material such as Carbon Steel, Low Alloy Steel and Non Ferrous Material Such as Stainless Steel and for HDPE-High Dense Polyethylene Material

  • COVERAGE:By steering, focusing, and scanning the transducer beams, PAUT systems can be used to inspect large surface areas quickly with high resolution.
  • SPEED:Rapid coverage of larger surface areas means PAUT can typically be conducted more quickly than conventional UT.
  • ACCURACY: By emitting beams of multiple different angles sequentially, PAUT is able to create detailed and accurate cross-sections of an asset, thereby increasing the probability of detecting anomalies.
  • REPEATABILITY:PAUT can easily be used for repeat scans due to its high degree of accuracy and consistency.
  • FLEXIBILITY:PAUT has proven to be an effective technique for inspecting more complex geometries such as elbows, bends, and nozzles. PAUT is also particularly useful in situations where there is limited access for mechanical scanning because it’s able to sweep the beam without moving the probe.
  • SAFETY:Using a semi-automated or motorized PAUT scanner avoids exposing inspection personnel to potentially dangerous environments. Moreover, PAUT is an effective alternative to radiographic testing, eliminating the safety hazards associated with radiography.
PAUT for Weld inspection
PAUT for Non Ferrous Material such as Stainless Steel (SS) using Dual Matrix Probe.
Total Focusing method / Full Matrix Capture (FMC/ TFM):

Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD)

TOFD inspection for Weld and HTHA screening,

Hydrogen Induced Crack Detection (HIC):

Using PAUT / TFM with narrow angle (-30° to +30°) sectorial scan.

Equipment: MX2 Olympus

Hydrogen Induced Crack Detection (HIC):

As per API RP 941.

AUBT Developed by Shell in the early 1990’s AUBT is a more reliable method for detecting and quantifying damage from high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA).

The technique uses conventional UT probes and a digital oscilloscope to provide both an A-Scan display and frequency analysis.

Variables such as the ID surface condition, geometry and other internal defects have little effect on AUBT measurements. The method is consistent and reliable so monitoring of hydrogen attack and its progression over time provides meaningful information. AUBT procedures cover both the parent material and welds (HAZ).

The AUBT technique was developed because conventional UT techniques do not detect micro-fissuring and older methods such as attenuation measurement proved unreliable in the field. AUBT incorporates ultrasonic backscatter detection with velocity measurement and spectral analysis.


The backscatter technique is applicable to materials of any geometry with or without cladding. It is primarily used to determine damage progression through the wall.

Spectrum analysis helps determine the degree of HTHA, is sensitive to fissures and is independent of the measurement system.

The velocity ratio measurement differentiates between fissures and other internal defects. It is not affected by material geometry, back wall surface condition, or the measuring system.

Automated Ultrasonic Testing (Corrosion Mapping) at normal and Elevated Temperature

Method of testing and inspection of base materials by Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) Corrosion Mapping method for the identification of corrosions, pitting, erosion, blisters or other metal losses on Equipment’s / vessels /piping / pipeline.


Short Range Ultrasonic Testing (SRUT)-For Storage Tank Annular Plate:

Short Range Ultrasonic Testing (Screening Technique) systems for inspection of In Services Storage Tanks Annular/Peripheral Plates with thickness range of 8 to 20mm for soil side and product side corrosion and defects.

This technique shall be considered as screening technique, which requires alternative NDT method / technique or Visual inspection to conform the results.

ISONIC SRUT/equivalent screening system with Latest Software.

SRUT is a qualitative and not quantitative inspection tool. It is very good at detecting anomalies and covering a very large floor areas of tank very quickly. It is not however capable of accurate quantification of signals as regards the remaining wall thickness. The reflection echoesis the function of volume loss of material rather than a measure of thickness loss.

Bottom side differentiation must have 2” space for Probe placement. Typical depth sizing is not possible, though limited depth sizing can be done with location specific calibration standard.

There are reasons for generation of signals other than from plate corrosion. Localized changes in material properties, weld scars and arc strikes can also cause significant indications. This must be borne in mind during the inspection process and cause of the signals properly shall be evaluated.

Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)-Tube Inspection

Equipment: MS5800 Olympus

Tube Inspection with an Internal Rotating Inspection System (IRIS) for Ferrous and Nonferrous Materials

The ultrasonic IRIS option is used to inspect a wide range of materials, including ferrous, nonferrous, and nonmetallic tubing. This technique detects and sizes wall loss resulting from corrosion, erosion, wear, pitting, cracking, and baffle cuts. Olympus digital IRIS inspection technology is used extensively as a prove-up technique for remote field testing, magnetic flux leakage, and eddy current inspections.

Setup Wizard

  • Simplifies equipment calibration for different tube diameters and materials. The wizard also generates the reporting code for the inspection.
  • Real-time gain and gate controlsUT settings can be modified during the C-scan acquisition for quick optimization of signal detection.
  • Real-time and continuous color C-scansReduces missed flaws with C-scan displays. To enhance the quality and appearance of your reports, include color maps and cross-section views of defects.
  • Full tube-length recordingUsed to analyze data off-line, and to assess results with customers.

Radiography Testing (RT): (Conventional Gamma Ray & X-Ray and Crawler X-Ray)

Film Radiography (Conventional) – Profile and Weld

Radiographic Testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which uses either x-rays or gamma rays to examine the internal structure of manufactured components identifying any flaws or defects.

Computed Radiography (CR)- Profile and Weld

Experience with computed radiography implementation in the place of conventional radiography methodis lead tonext level in NDT.With phosphorous reusable Imaging plate (IP) the time requirement considerably reduced, well fit for profile radiography/wall loss measurement. Establishment of this technique required skill and proper training, Our personnel having almost 5 year practical experience and trained by Carestream (manufacturer) representative is added advantage.

Digital Radiography (DR)- Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) and Weld

Digital / Direct radiography – using an flat panel detector which can obtain the result during or immediately after the exposure from the site itself in the laptop, Well understood of this technique and establishment of this technique including preparing reliable procedure and demonstration requirement as per the code. For profile radiography / tangential radiography for the use of to find the corrosion under the insulation and its limitation.

Training of NDT personnel for Digital radiography technique for the application of corrosion and deposits in pipes by X- and gamma rays as per ISO 20769-1:2018. Specifically in the area of calculating the appropriate SFD for the particular diameter of pipe, integration time and required number of Signal to Noise ratio, frame rate. Choosing the appropriate radiation source based on the pipe Diameter with thickness in terms of tangential calculation.

Training of NDT Personnel for Digital Radiography technique for the application of weld inspection as per the requirement of (ISO 17636-2 -X- and gamma-ray techniques with digital detectors) Company Written Practise as complies with SNT-TC-1A/ CP-189, CP-105 & ASME Sec.V article-1.

Experience with HPX-DRX Plus CARESTREAM, SMARTRT PWS320 VMIDR system, interpret the test results, analysing the DR panel functional test -Bad-pixel map, verifying the resolution / Unsharpness gauge test by duplex Wire IQI (ASTM E-2002), ISO 19235-5. Usage and restriction of Display filter and other filters.

Digital Radiography –DR Panel calibration (Basic Spatial Resolution / Unsharpness using Duplex Wire IQI as per ISO I7636-2)
INSULATED PIPE –Digital radiography for In-service Corrosion Detection

Knowledge and experience with ASME Requirements for Digital radiography as per Article-2 Mandatory appendix-IX for the qualification process including test procedure and Demonstration Requirement.

Digital Radiography-Weld

Solid practical experience with Detector Offset Correction, Gain correction, Detector correction frequency and its effects on the digital image.

Close Proximity Radiography (CPR) / Small Controlled Area Radiography (SCAR)

The objective of SCAR / CPR radiography system is to carry out the radiography work within 3 meter barrier distance.

Penetrant Testing -Visible and Fluorescent

Liquid Penetrant Testing using Visible Solvent Removable Penetrant, for detecting open surface discontinuities on all type of metals and non-metals including welds except highly porous surfaced materials.

Magnetic Particle Testing (Visible / Fluorescent )

Magnetic Particle examinations of Ferromagnetic Welds/Components for detecting defects on surface, near surface and whose geometry and sizes are suitable for carrying out the above method of testing, using AC/DC electro Magnetic Yoke, Permanent yoke and wet magnetic particles with visible and fluorescent method

MPI Consumables
MPI Fluorescent Consumables

Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing (MFL)

Tank Floor Inspection including annular plate.

The basic principle is that a powerful magnet is used to magnetize the steel. At areas where there is corrosion or missing metal, the magnetic field “leaks” from the steel. In an MFL (or Magnetic Flux Leakage) tool, a magnetic detector is placed between the poles of the magnet to detect the leakage field.

Electromagnetic Testing (ET)

Eddy Current Testing (ECT) –Tube Inspection

Equipment: MS5800 Olympus

Tube Inspection with Eddy Current Testing (ECT)

Eddy current testing is a noncontact method used to inspect non-ferromagnetic tubing. This technique is suitable for detecting and sizing metal discontinuities such as corrosion, erosion, wear, pitting, baffle cuts, wall loss, and cracks in nonferrous materials.

Two coils are excited with an electrical current, producing a magnetic field around them. The magnetic fields penetrate the tube material and generate opposing alternating currents in the material. These currents are called eddy currents.

Any defects that change the eddy current flow also change the impedance of the coils in the probe.

These changes in the impedance of the coils are measured and used to detect defects in the tube.


Remote Field Eddy Current Testing (RFT) –Tube Inspection

Equipment: MS5800 Olympus

Tube Inspection with Remote Field Testing (RFT)

Remote field testing (RFT) is being used to successfully inspect ferromagnetic tubing such as carbon steel or ferritic stainless steel. This technology offers good sensitivity when detecting and measuring volumetric defects resulting from erosion, corrosion, wear, and baffle cuts.

Olympus remote field probes and the MultiScan™ MS 5800 are used all around the world to successfully inspect heat exchangers, feed water heaters, and boiler tubes.

MultiScan MS 5800R Key Features (RFT)

  • RFT with up to four different frequencies and real-time mixes.This feature provides more flexibility for mixing and defect validation. The detection and sizing of flaws at the support plate is made easier with multi frequency inspections and dual-driver operations.
  • RFT with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 250 kHz.The high frequency available with the MultiScan MS 5800R™ extends RFT inspection to thin materials with low permeability, such as 400-series stainless steel, and other ferromagnetic alloys.

Magnetic Flex Leakage Testing (MFL) –Tube Inspection

Equipment: MS5800 Olympus

Tube Inspection with Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL)

Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is a fast inspection technique, suitable for measuring wall loss and detecting sharp defects such as pitting, grooving, and circumferential cracks. MFL is effective for aluminum-finned carbon steel tubes, because the magnetic field is almost completely unaffected by the presence of such fins.

Near Field Testing (NFT) –Tube Inspection

Equipment: MS5800 Olympus

Tube Inspection with Near Field Testing (NFT)

Near field testing (NFT) technology is a rapid and inexpensive solution intended specifically for fin-fan carbon-steel tubing inspection. This new technology relies on a simple driver-pickup eddy current probe design providing very simple signal analysis.

NFT is specifically suited to the detection of internal corrosion, erosion, or pitting on the inside of carbon steel tubing. The NFT probes measure lift-off or “fill factor,” and convert it to amplitude-based signals (no phase analysis). Because the eddy current penetration is limited to the inner surface of the tube, NFT probes are not affected by the fin geometry on the outside of the tubes.

Surface Eddy Current Testing

Several benefits are derived from eddy current testing:

Metrological testing

Positive Material Identification (PMI)

Positive Material Identification (PMI) is a fast and non-destructive testing (NDT) method for verifying the chemical composition of metals and alloys. PMI can be used to verify that supplied materials conform to the proper standards and specifications.


Optical Emission Spectrum (OES)

Method for verifying the chemical composition including low atomic elements such as Carbon etc


Calibration Services

NDT Equipment’s (Yoke, Ferrite Machine, PMI, UTM, UT, Hardness etc.)

Welding Machine

Welding Electrode Oven

Ferrite Content Measurement

Equipment: FERITSCOPE-FMP30 Measurement of the Ferrite Content in Austenitic and Duplex Steel

The FERITSCOPE FMP30 measures the ferrite content in austenitic and duplex steel according to the magnetic induction method.It is suited for measurements according to the Basler-Standard and according to DIN EN ISO 17655. Areas of application are onsite measurements, e. g. of austenitic
plating’s as well as weld seams in stainless steel pipes, containers, boilers or other products made of austenitic or duplex steel.

Duplex steel is used increasingly in the chemical and petrochemical industries, e. g., for boilers and pipelines. A ferrite deficit in the weld seam area leads to strength reduction, an excess ferrite content to a reduction in toughness and ductility.

In particular when welding duplex steel, the ferrite content in the welding area can easily assume unfavorable values either due to unsuitable welding filler materials or through poor heat input or heat removal. Only an onsite measurement can provide the assurance that the processing did not change the optimum ferrite content in an unfavorable manner at the expense of mechanical or corrosion-resistance properties.

Holiday Detector-Paint / Coating Damage or Leak Detection

Protective coating failure can result in corrosion or other deterioration of the underlying material or substrate. Possible problems include formation of corrosion product such as rust or pits and chemical attack. The resulting repairs of the coating and the inability to use the affected equipment and plant can be very expensive.

Often, failures occur due to the presence of flaws in the finished coating. Typical flaws are pinholes, holidays, inclusions, air bubbles, cracks and thin spots. Therefore, it is good practice to inspect a coating for defects and flaws with holiday detector.

Standards Used:

  • ASTM G62 – 14 (Standard Test Methods for Holiday Detection in Pipeline Coatings),
  • ASTM D5162-15 Standard Practice for Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing of Nonconductive Protective Coating on Metallic Substrates

Hardness Testing (HB, HV, etc)

Hardness Measurements on Metallic Materials including Welds, Base Materials and Machined Surfaces and many more including rubber.

Ultrasonic Contact Impedance (UCI): (Native Scale-Vicker Hardness)

The UCI method uses the same pyramid-shaped diamond as a conventional Vickers hardness tester. Unlike Vickers testing, no optical evaluation of the indentation is required, enabling fast and portable measurements. The UCI method excites a rod into an ultrasonic oscillation. The test load is applied by a spring and typically ranges from 1 to 10 kg of force (HV1 – HV10). As the diamond is forced into the material, the frequency of the rod oscillation changes in response to the contact area between the diamond and the material under test. The instrument detects the shift in frequency, converts it to a hardness value which is immediately displayed on the screen.

Leep Hardness: (Native Scale-HLD)

Leeb rebound hardness testing is mainly used for on-site testing of heavy, large or already installed metal parts, but is also applied for testing composites, rubber and rock.

The rebound method is based on measuring voltages to indicate the loss of energy of a so-called impact body after it strikes the test piece. In an instrument using the rebound principle, a spring propels an impact body through a guide tube toward the test piece. As the impact body travels unimpeded toward the test piece, a magnet contained within generates a voltage in a coil system that encircles the guide tube. Typically a tungsten carbide or diamond ball indenter, located on the end of the impact body, strikes the material, causing the impact body to re bound from the surface at a slower velocity. The softer the material, the bigger the indentation, causing a larger loss of energy and a slower rebound speed, which in turn produces a proportionally lower voltage as the magnet returns through the coil. The hardness value (HL) is calculated from the ratio of the impact and rebound speed. The third letter in the Leeb Hardness unit indicates the impact device used, D for impact device D etc. This value can then be converted by the software to display conventional HRC, HV or HB scales along with others.

When used in the appropriate application, these devices are quite accurate, very simple to use and the repeatability is high. The most critical variables affecting the test are part thickness and mass. As described above, there is an impact body that is released at a given velocity onto the surface of the object under test. If the material thickness is too thin, with little mass, then the material actually flexes on impact. This influences the rebound velocity and in turn affects the reading obtained.

This method is specially suited for coarse grained parts as well as forgings and cast materials with a certain thickness and mass.

Standards Used:

  • ASTM A 956 -Standard Test Method for Leeb hardness testing of steel products.
  • ASTM E110-Standard test method for indentation Hardness of metallic materials by portable hardness testers.
  • ASTM E140 -Relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness.
  • ASTM A370 -Test methods and definitions for mechanical testing of steel products.
  • ASTM A1038 -Standard test method for portable hardness testing by the Ultrasonic Contact Impedance method
  • ISO 16859-1 Leeb Hardness Test Ed.2015

Vacuum Box Leak Testing

Vacuum box testing is a non-destructive examination (NDE/NDT) used for locating welding leaks. A vacuum box and a compressor create a high or low-pressure vacuum and a detergent solution is applied to the test area. The detergent bubbles help to identify the leaks within the created pressure envelope.

The main objective of the Vacuum box testing technique is to locate leaks in welds due to through-thickness discontinuities. This is accomplished by applying a solution to a weld and creating a differential pressure across the weld causing the formation of bubbles as leakage gas passes through the solution. This testing is to be performed prior to any main vessel or tank testing following the completion of all welding.

Infrared Testing / Thermal Imaging

See Initial Signs of Failure:

A thermal imaging camera allows you to quickly scan large areas, looking for hot spots on machinery or electrical systems that could indicate a potential problem.

Diagnose the Source of the Problem:

With built-in meter features such as LoZ-Low Impedance mode, and in-camera temperature analysis options, FLIR’s range of professional tools helps you quickly diagnose problems and get to the job of fixing them.

Demonstrate that it’s repaired:

Thermal images provide visual proof a fault existed and was properly repaired. Including these shots and measurement data in your reports will help to document your work and increase customer confidence.

Videoscope / Boroscope / Video Crawler

When direct visual examination is restricted, this inspection will helpful in many ways.

Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM)

Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) is an electromagnetic inspection technique that introduces an alternating current into the surface of a component to detect surface-breaking cracks.

The presence of a crack disturbs the electromagnetic field and the return signal is instantaneously converted by advanced mathematical techniques so that operators are alerted to the presence of defects.

Immediate defect sizing and recording is a major benefit compared to other NDT methods. Results from independent testing shows ACFM matches magnetic particle inspection (MPI) performances when inspecting underwater structural welds. The amount of missed and spurious signals is significantly lower with ACFM compared to MPI and conventional eddy current testing (ECT).

With ACFM’s lower cleaning requirements and fewer false calls, inspections are significantly shorter, saving customers money.

Pre Heat &Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)

Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a controlled process in which a material that has been welded is reheated to a temperature below its lower critical transformation temperature, and then it is held at that temperature for a specified amount of time. It is often referred to as being any heat treatment performed after welding; however, within the oil, gas, petrochemical and nuclear industries, it has a specific meaning. Industry codes, such as the ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes, often require mandatory performance of PWHT on certain materials to ensure a safe design with optimal mechanical and metallurgical properties.

(i) Electric Resistance Method:

Local Post Weld Heat Treatment operations utilizing the electrical resistance method will incorporate the use of our flexible ceramic pad elements.

Electrical Resistance method applications including:

For P-No.1, 3, 9A & 9B
Unrestricted heating :
up to 300 ° C
Maximum heating rate:
150 ° C / Hr
Soaking Time (Holding time):
1 Hr (Min) for wall thickness ≤ 1”
(1 Hr/inch (2.4min/mm shall be maintained for above 1” wall thickness)
Soaking / Holding Temp:
595-650 ° C
Cooling Rate:
150 ° C / Hr
Unrestricted cooling
below 300° C

Thickness of the weld, which is a factor in determining the control thickness, is defined as follows:

  1. Groove welds (girth and longitudinal) — the thicker of the two abutting ends after weld preparation, including I.D. machining
  2. Fillet welds — the throat thickness of the weld
  3. Partial penetration welds — the depth of the weld groove
  4. Material repair welds — the depth of the cavity to be repaired
  5. Branch welds — the dimension existing in the plane intersecting the longitudinal axes.

(ii) Furnace Internal Firing Method-PWHT

ASME Sec.VIII Div.1 mentioned “any appropriate method” and also it recommended the reference document that, Research Council (WRC) Bulletin 452, June 2000, “Recommended Practices for Local Heating of Welds in Pressure Vessels.”

High Velocity Gas Combustion:

High velocity oil fired technique for stress relieving

Visual Testing (VT)

As per ASME Sec.V Article-9, Direct visual examination is usually be made when access is sufficient to place the eye within 24 in.(600 mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 deg to the surface to be examined. Mirrors may used to improve the angle of vision, and aids such as a magnifying lens may be used to assist examinations. Illumination (natural or supplemental white light-1076Lux Minimum) of the examination surface is required for the specific part, component, vessel, or section thereof being examined.

Torque Test for Bolts

The Torque audits for the purpose of measuring residual torque are conducted by rotating the screw head or nut in the tightening direction over a small number of degrees, often suggested as 5-degree increments. The fastener is moved in the tightening direction because this best simulates the conditions at installation.

Residual torque is nearly always measured with an electronic or mechanical manual torque wrench.

Breakaway method is the preferred method for the measurement of residual torque.

Pull Out Test

Normally performed to establish the load capacity strength of fixings that have been installed or fitted into walls, slabs, soffits etc, our pull out tests are vital for commercial buildings, railways, airports or domestic situations.

There are many factors that can affect the strength and durability of eyebolts, anchor bolts, scaffold ties, stud anchors, resin bolts and safety wires, so it is vital that they are regularly checked tested and certified. This is especially the case when visual inspection is just not enough.

Pull out testing involves attaching a suitable test rig to the bolt, screw, anchor or fixing. This is then put under tension to the designed stress load level to determine how strong and secure the fixing is.